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Android 9 (API level 28) introduces a number of changes to the Android system.The following behavior changes apply exclusively to apps that are targetingAPI level 28 or higher. Apps that set
targetSdkVersion to API level 28 orhigher must modifytheir apps to support these behaviors properly, where applicable to the app.
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App Crash on Android P or Android 6.0 above due to lack of org, Adding the org.apache.http.legacy package from the android-sdk platforms android-23 Apps that target Android 9 or higher and use foreground services must Google allows you to still use this API, just not as a built in one, by adding this line to the gradle file: useLibrary 'org.apache.http.legacy' So, this is what I did. Android 6.0 release removes support for the Apache HTTP client. If your app is using this client and targets Android 2.3 (API level 9) or higher, use the HttpURLConnection class instead. This API is more efficient because it reduces network use through transparent compression and response caching, and minimizes power consumption.
For changes that affect all apps running on Android 9, regardless of which APIlevel they target, seeBehavior changes: all apps.
Apps that target Android 9 or higher and use foreground services must requestthe
FOREGROUND_SERVICEpermission. This is a normal permission,so the system automatically grants it to the requesting app.
If an app that targets Android 9 or higher attempts to create a foreground service withoutrequesting
FOREGROUND_SERVICE,the system throws a
If your app targets Android 9, you should keep the followingbehavior changes in mind. These updates to device serial and DNS informationenhance user privacy.
Build serial number deprecation
In Android 9,
Build.SERIAL isalways set to
'UNKNOWN' to protect users' privacy.
If your app needs to access a device's hardware serial number, you shouldinstead request the
READ_PHONE_STATEpermission, then call
Apps targeting Android 9 should honor the private DNS APIs. In particular,apps should ensure that, if the system resolver is doing DNS-over-TLS, anybuilt-in DNS client either uses encrypted DNS to the same hostname as thesystem, or is disabled in favor of the system resolver.
Framework security changes
Android 9 includes several behavior changes that improve yourapp's security, but these changes take effect only if your app targets API level28 or higher.
Network TLS enabled by default
If your app targets Android 9 or higher, the
false by default. If your app needs to enable cleartext forspecific domains, you must explicitly set
truefor those domains in your app's Network SecurityConfiguration.
Web-based data directories separated by process
In order to improve app stability and data integrity in Android 9, apps cannotshare a single
WebView datadirectory amongmultiple processes. Typically,such data directories store cookies, HTTP caches, and other persistent andtemporary storage related to web browsing.
In most cases, your app should use classes from the
android.webkit package, suchas
CookieManager, in only oneprocess. For example, you should move all
Activity objects that use a
WebViewinto the same process. You can more strictly enforce the 'one process only' ruleby calling
disableWebView() inyour app's other processes. This call prevents
WebView from being initializedin those other processes by mistake, even if it's being called from a dependentlibrary.
If your app must use instances of
WebView in more than one process,you must assign a unique data directory suffix for each process, using the
WebView.setDataDirectorySuffix()method, before using a given instance of
WebView in that process. This methodplaces web data from each process in its own directory within your app's datadirectory.
setDataDirectorySuffix(), the system doesn't sharecookies and other web data across your app's process boundaries. If multipleprocesses in your app need access to the same web data, you need to copy itbetween those processes yourself. For example, you can call
setCookie()to manually transfer cookie data from one process to another.
Per-app SELinux domains
Apps that target Android 9 or higher cannot share data with other apps usingworld-accessible Unix permissions. This change improves the integrity of theAndroid Application Sandbox,particularly the requirement that an app'sprivate data is accessibleonly by that app.
To share files with other apps, use a contentprovider.
Connectivity data counting and multipath
Within apps that target Android 9 or higher, the system countsnetwork traffic on networksthat aren't the current default—such as cell traffic while the device is onWi-Fi—and provides methods in the
NetworkStatsManagerclass to query for that traffic.
getMultipathPreference()now returns a value based on the aforementioned network traffic. Beginning withAndroid 9, the method returns
true for cell data, but when more than a certain amount oftraffic accumulates in a day, it starts returning
false. Apps running onAndroid 9 must call the method and honor this hint.
ConnectivityManager.NetworkCallbackclass now sends information about VPNs to apps. This change makes it much easierfor apps to listen for connectivity events without having to mix synchronous andasynchronous calls and using limited APIs. Additionally, it means thatinformation transfer works as expected when a device is connected to multipleWi-Fi networks or multiple cell networks simultaneously.
Apache HTTP client deprecation
With Android 6.0,we removed support for the Apache HTTP client.Beginning with Android 9, that library is removed from thebootclasspath and is not available to apps by default.
To continue using the Apache HTTP client, apps that target Android 9 and abovecan add the following to their
android:required='false'attribute is required for apps that have aminimum SDK of 23 or lower, because on devices with API levels lower than 24,the
org.apache.http.legacylibrary is not available. (On those devices, theApache HTTP classes are available on the bootclasspath.)
As an alternative to using the runtime Apache library, apps can bundle theirown version of the
org.apache.http library in their APK. If you do this,you must repackage the library (with a utility likeJar Jar) to avoid class compatibility issueswith the classes provided in the runtime.
Views with 0 area (either a width or a height is 0) are no longer focusable.
Additionally, activities no longer implicitly assign initial focus intouch-mode. Instead, it is up to you to explicitly request initial focus, ifdesired.
CSS RGBA hex value handling
Apps that target Android 9 or higher must enable the draftCSS Color Module Level 4behaviour for handling 4 and 8 hex digit CSS colors.
CSS Color Module Level 4has been supported by Chrome since release 52, butWebView currently disables the featurebecause existing Android applications were found to contain 32 bit hex colorsin the Android ordering (ARGB), which would cause rendering errors.
For example, the color
#80ff8080 is currently rendered inWebView as opaquelight red (
#ff8080) for apps targeting API levels 27 or lower. The leadingcomponent (which would be interpreted by Android as the alpha component) iscurrently ignored. If an app targets API level 28 or higher,
#80ff8080 isinterpreted as 50% transparent light green (
MIME type sniffing for file: URIs
Android versions earlier than Android 9 could infer MIME types from the filecontents. Starting with Android 9 (API level 28) apps must use thecorrect file extension when loading
file: URIs in aWebView.
Using the file contents to infer MIME types can be a source of security bugs,and this is not generally permitted by modern browsers.
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If a file has a recognized file extension such as
.css the MIME type will be determined by the extension.If a file has no extension or an unrecognized one, the MIME type will be plaintext.
For example, a URI like
file:///sdcard/test.html will be rendered asHTML, but a URI like
file:///sdcard/test will render as plain text,even if the file contains HTML data.
Document scrolling element
Android 9 properly handles the case where a document's rootelement is the scrolling element.On earlier versions, scrolling position was set on the body element, andthe root element had zero scroll values. Android 9 enables thestandards-compliant behaviour where the scrolling element is the rootelement.
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Furthermore, directly accessing
document.documentElement.scrollLeftwill behave differently depending on target SDK. To access viewport scrollvalues, use
document.scrollingElement, if available.
Notifications from suspended apps
Prior to Android 9, notifications from suspended apps were canceled.Beginning with Android 9, notifications from suspended apps are hidden untilthe app is resumed.